Reading Comprehension

Passage – I (1-15)

I worked as health secretary for about five years from the middle of 1962 to the middle of 1967. Thereafter I worked as finance secretary until the end of 1969. Indiscipline was rampant in the health department. Intense lobbying to secure plum postings was the order of the day. Ministers, legislators, senior officers and other influential people openly pleaded the cause of their protégés. The Health Minister was an honest, well-meaning politician. He approved my proposals to bring about some system and objectivity in posting and transfers and put an end to lobbying. But those efforts met with only limited success. Doctors succeeded in getting desired postings by resorting to bribery. On the eve of the elections, the then minister sent down over 100 transfer orders from his camp of five. They were in conflict with the guidelines and quite a few were confusing in as much as two doctors were posted to the same place, or one person was posted to more than  one post. I did not carry out the orders. I submitted a note to chief Minister through the Chief Secretary pointing out why the orders should not be implemented. The Chief Secretary Supported me. The Chief Minister decided that the minister’s orders should not be implemented. All the doctors who had paid money were disappointed. In several other departments also corruption became widespread. In the works departments corruption had existed since a long time in the matter of awarding contract. Now bribes were freely offered to secure transfer to particular posts, and even for getting promotions.

            As finance Secretary I found that the finances of the state were in a precarious condition. Financial discipline had evaporated. Long before the advent of the wireless and the telephone, The British had included in the Treasury Code a rule (Rule 27) empowering collectors to draw money from the treasury to meet emergencies like floods, earthquakes, devastating fires, etc. To my dismay I found that collectors were freely drawing money for all manner of trivial purposes under Rule 27 of the Treasury Code. In one case a collector had drawn money under the rule to by a staff car for the SDO of another district. All checks and balances had disappeared. There was no accountability and any one could do what he pleased. Resorting to a number of harsh measures I could restore a measure of financial discipline. But the administration continued to be in disarray.

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1. How many years did the author work as health secretary?

(1) He worded as health secretary until the end of 1969

(2) He worked as health secretary before he took over as finance

Secretary.

(3) He worded as health secretary till the health minister was found to be a man of integrity.

(4) He worked as health secretary for about five years.

(5) He did not word as health secretary at all.

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2. According to the author what was the order of the day?

(1) Strict discipline

(2) Cut throat competition

(3) Racial discrimination 

(4) Intense lobbying

(5)None of these

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3. How did the doctors succeed in getting desired postings?

(1) Through dedicated service.  

(2) By working in the health minister’s constituency

(3) By resorting to sycophancy  

(4) By resorting to bribery

(5) None of these.

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4. When the health minister sent down 100 transfer orders from

 his camp office, how did the author react?

(A) He immediately obeyed the minister  

(B) He did not carry out the orders  

(C) He submitted a note to Chief Minister through the Chief

Secretary

(1) Only (A)           (2) Only (B)           (3) Only (A) & (B)  

(4) Only (B) & (C)                                (5) Only (A) & (C)

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5. What happened when the Chief Minister decided that the

 minister’s orders should not be implemented?

(1) The author was very happy  

(2) The author arranged a tea party to celebrate his victory       

(3) The doctors resigned and left the hospitals  

(4) The health minister submitted his resignation  

(5) All the doctors who had paid money were disappointed

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Directions (6 – 15): Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE

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6. Intense

(1) Active (2) Vigorous (3) Feeble (4) Inferior (5) Devise

7. Success

 (1) Defeat (2) Succeed (3) Abrupt (4) Failure (5) Difficult

8. Conflict

 (1) Conformity (2) agreement (3) Attest (4) Combat

 (5) Manifest

9. Supported

(1) Advocated (2) Betrayed (3) Opposed (4) Abandoned

(5) Proposed

10. Promotion

(1) Premonition (2) Facilitate (3) Demotion (4) Obstruction

(5) Encourage

11. Precarious

(1) Menacing (2) Threatening (3) Secured (4) Firmly (5) Unsafe

12. Discipline

(1) Orderly (2) Restrain (3) Indiscipline (4) Turbulence

(5) Confusion

13. Devastating

(1) Ravaging (2) wrecking  (3) Refreshing (4) Restoring

(5) Replenishing

14. Trivial

(1) Perilous (2) Frivolous (3) Important (4) Weighty

(5) Momentous

15. Harsh

(1) Peculiar (2) Blunt (3) Mild (4) Melodious (5) Coarse

Passage – II (16-25)

What is immediately needed today is the establishment of a world Government or an International Federation of Mankind. It is the utmost necessity of the world today, and all those persons who wish to see all human beings happy and prosperous naturally feel it keenly. Of course, at times we feel that many of the problems of our political, social, linguistic and cultural life would come to an end if there were one Government all over the world. Travellers, businessmen, seekers of knowledge and teachers of righteousness know very well that great impediments and obstructions are faced by them when they pass from one country to another, exchange goods, get information, and make an effort to spread their good gospel among their fellow-men. In the past, religious sects divided one set of people against another, colour of the skin or shape of the body set one against the other. But today when philosophical light has exploded the darkness that was created by religious differences, and when scientific knowledge has falsified the superstitions, they have enabled human beings of all religious views and of all races and colours to come in frequent contact with one another. It is the governments of various countries that keep people of one country apart from those of another, to come in frequent contact with one another. They create artificial barriers, unnatural distinctions, unhealthy isolation, unnecessary fears and dangers in the minds of the common men who by their nature want to live in friendship with their fellowmen. But all these evils would cease to exist if there were one Government all over the world.

16. What is the urgent need of the world today?

(1) The establishment of an international economic order. 

(2) The establishment of a world government   

(3) The creation of a cultured international social order 

(4) The raising of an international spiritual army 

(5) Competitive spirit among the countries

17.  What divides people of a country against one another?

(1) Different religions         

(2) Different language       

(3) Different social and political   

(4)Material advancement of a few nations with imperialistic learning’s   

(5) Governments of various countries

18. What will the world Government be expected to do?

(1) It will arrange for interplanetary contacts               

(2) It will end all wars for all time to come             

(3) It will bring about a moral regeneration of mankind  

(4) It will kill the evil spirit in man  

(5) It will bring about universal happiness and prosperity

19. Choose the word which is SIMILAR in meaning as the word

 “Righteousness” as used in the passage.

(1) Rectitude (2) religiosity (3) requirement (4) Scrupulousness

(5) Exactitude

20. Which of the following problems has not been mentioned in the passage as likely to be solved with the establishment of worlds Government?

(1) Social problems (2) Political problems (3) Cultural problems (4) Economic problems (5) Linguistic problems

21. Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘impediments’ as used in the passage.

(1) Handicaps (2) furtherance (3) providence (4) hindrances

(5) Subscriptions

22. The most appropriate title of the above passage may be

 ………..

(1) The Evils of the world order

(2) The man can make his Destiny

(3) The Need of world Government.

(4) The Role of Religion in the Modern Times              

(5) Advantages of Scientific Knowledge

23. What was the factor, according to the passage, that set one man against another?

(1) Material prosperity of certain people in the midst of grinding poverty    

(2) Superior physical strength of some persons  

(3) Colour of skin or shape of the body  

(4) Some people being educated and other illiterate.  

(5) Psychological barriers.

24. The theory of racial superiority stands falsified today by

 …………

(1) Knowledge derived from scientific advances.           

(2) The ascendancy of people who were here to fore considered of inferior racial stock  

(3) The achievements of the so called backward countries in every field of life  

(4) The precedence given to the physical prowess of different races   (5) ethical and moral under standings.

25. In the past religious sects ………….

(1) United the people with one another

(2) Interfered in political affairs   

(3) Did a good job by way of spreading message of love and peace   (4) Divided one set of people from another 

(5) Kept away from political affairs

Passage – III (26-40)

The writer believes that the work experience should focus more on the development in students of the ability to work with the materials of their environment and solve problems as close to reality as is  practicable.

Work experience is included as a separate subject in the school system, should not be treated in the same manner as other school subjects, i.e., accumulation of certain technical facts with a superficial blessing of practical aspect of this new subject in our school curriculum.

Work experience when included as a separate subject in our school curriculum will not doubt entail huge investment. But if the concept of work experience is implemented with a sincere and competent guidance, this above investment will be a great asset to our nation.

Let us suppose, that work experience is designed in such a manner to be productive and self sufficient, it may have some negative reaction from local small scale producers of those consumer goods. However, an assumption is made in the above conviction that the quality of consumer articles produced by a school would be good enough to compete in the market.

Ignoring all the inherent dangers discussed earlier of incorporating work experience as a separate subject in our school curriculum, it may still be worthwhile to include work experience level in science teaching even with work experience as a separate subject.

This concept of work experience in science teaching would help to provide a proper training (or development of scientific attitude) in work experience as a separate subject and in useful occupations or vocations to our students. The above training may encourage students to set up small scale industries after their completion of grade ten. This above approach may give some satisfaction to our tax payers that the investment in the educational endeavour is not a total wastage of their money.

            The writer’s experience (in various countries) suggests that to make work experience a worthwhile experience, it should also be incorporated as an integral part into the high school subjects, especially science subjects. To accomplish this, any school subject especially science must be taught on four levels; the facts level, the concepts level, the values level, and the work experience level.

26. What is the subject which should not be treated in the same manner as other school subjects?

(1) Technical subject (2) Practical aspects of all the subjects

(3) Work experience (4) School system and procedures

(5) None of these

27. According to the writer, the work experience should focus more ……….

A. On the development in students of extracurricular activities.

B. On the development in students of the ability to work with the materials of their surroundings.

C. On the ability to solve problems as close to reality as is practicable.

(1) Only A (2) Only B (3) Only C (4) Only B and C

(5) All A, B and C

28. The concept of work experience in science teaching would help ………..       

A. To provide proper training in work experience.

B. Students to set up small scale industries after the completion of trade ten.

C. To give some satisfaction to our tax payers that they could reap a little more profit from this endeavour.

(1) Only A (2) Only B (3) Only C (4) Only A and B

(5) All, A, B, and C

29. What will happen if the work experience is designed to be productive and self-sufficient?

(1) It may lead to huge investment  

(2) It may help the nation in asset building  

(3) It may have some negative reaction from the local small scale producers  

(4) It may lead to accumulation of certain technical facts 

(5) It may lead to better quality goods production

30. Why the writer suggests that science must be taught on four levels?

(1) To make the students interested in the subjects

(2) To make them matured citizens of the country  

(3) To make work experience a worthwhile experience  

(4) To make the science subjects popular among the students  

(5) None of these

31. The idea that to make work experience a worthwhile experience, it should also be incorporated as an integral part into the high school subjects comes from …………..

(1) His interaction with other writers  

(2) His experience in science teaching 

(3) His patriotism and love for higher education 

(4) His experience in several countries  

(5) None of these

Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SIMILAR in meaning as the word/group of words given in bold as used in the passage.

32.  Sincere

(1) Open (2) Earnest (3) Dissolute (4) Upright (5) Rightful

33.  Encourage

(1) Animate (2) Urge (3) Stimulate         (4) Dissuade (5) Encroach

34.  Self sufficient

(1) Adequate (2) Dependent (3) Overflowing (4) Self-advocating

(5) Self-reliant